JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap Khalsa Publications en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Prototyping a Disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant enabled to overcome Perpetual Motion Machines https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9633 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research discusses a strategic methodology for implementing a disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant (SSPP) characterized by the cascading coupling of a group of Power Units (PUs). In this configuration, the heat released from each PU due to the cooling of the thermal working fluid (TWF) is efficiently recovered and reused as supply heat for the first PU in the cascade. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Two case studies on the SSPP have been conducted using air and helium as TWFs. The first deals with PUs coupled in cascade operating with closed processes-based Vsp thermal cycles, while the second involves PUs coupled in cascade operating with closed processes-based VsVs thermal cycles. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Following the corresponding analysis of both case studies, significant results were obtained. These results, derived from this preliminary design study, will be applied to the implementation of the disruptive SSPP prototype operating with real gases as working fluids. This allows for a precise and clear understanding of the issue of generating useful work through expansion, contraction, or both. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Moreover, according to the results, the SSPP composed by a group of power units where the efficiency of each power unit operating with air as working fluid only approaches a value of the efficiency of 22%, can exceed 100% of the nominal design power under certain conditions, which supposes a flagrant violation of the principle of conservation of energy due to the fact that such disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant is enabled to overcome a Perpetual Motion Machine of second kind.</span></p> Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garcia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 22 141 177 10.24297/jap.v22i.9633 Gauge Abelian Models for Symetry Objects https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9597 <p>This work explores gauge symmetry for the so-called symmetry object. The investigation associates gauge symmetry to a collection of fields. Different fields are boxed inside of a symmetry object as a matrix. A systemic gauge symmetry is proposed. It introduces a new procedure where gauge symmetry should not be restricted to Yang-Mills procedure. Two fields arrangements are taken. The N-matter fields and M- mediators fields. These two symmetry objects are connected through an abelian gauge symmetry. The corresponding generator becomes a matricial charge Q rotating as U = eiQα where α means the abelian gauge parameter. It yields a collective gauge transformation. Thus, instead of considering the Yang-Mills canonical procedure where the number of gauge fields is equal to the number of gauge generators, this work develops an abelian gauge theory for symmetry objects. The cases where Q is 2x2 and 3x3 matrices are studied. By consequence, instead of developing gauge models where three and eight mediators should be associated to SU(2) and SU(3) groups, are develops their behaviors in terms M an abelian group.</p> Renato M. Doria Samuel D. S. Freitas Copyright (c) 2024 Renato M. Doria, Samuel d. S. Freitas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 22 118 136 10.24297/jap.v22i.9597 A mathematical expression to predict a laser pulse shape https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9608 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A mathematical expression to predict the shape of a laser pulse is obtained. It is compatible with an experimental one published elsewhere. Comparative computations with other published trials that follow the same trend are made. As a result, our trial is recommended for forthcoming theoretical studies to be published in the field of pulsed laser heating.</span></p> M. K. Adawi S. A. Shalaby S. S. Mostafa S. A. Antar Copyright (c) 2024 M. K. Adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mostafa, S. A. Antar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 22 137 140 10.24297/jap.v22i.9608 Thermo-Mechanical Energy https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9604 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Thermodynamics and mechanics are two highly developed disciplines, which have remained very independent. Some studies link them but they are restricted to very limited aspects, as if trying to maintain the independence between them. In Mechanics, energy is considered a single uniform property represented by a scalar magnitude has limited its study. On the contrary, Thermodynamics analyzes each magnitude separately and links them with already different definitions beforehand, this allows these to be given diverse properties often related to the reference systems and subsequently linked to each other a posteriori without losing their particularities. This can be seen in the definition of internal energy and kinetic energy of the volume of gases; In Mechanics, this separation is not made and therefore it is restricted to considering energy as a scalar. This study defines why energy should be subdivided, what advantage comes from analyzing it in this way, what cases it applies to, what answers are obtained that were not achievable before, and it eliminates contradictions that are generated if it is considered only a scalar. This reasoning also opens the way to the introduction of the concept of entropy in mechanics (more precisely in dynamics), which provides answers to the temporal direction of events and, in this way, the false idea of temporal symmetry in the equations is eliminated and it allows us to see that it is presented this way intentionally as a way to simplify problem-solving.</span></p> A.T. CANERO G. G. CANERO Copyright (c) 2024 A.T. CANERO and G. G. Canero https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 22 111 117 10.24297/jap.v22i.9604 Sayed`s Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter Forces Nature https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9605 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Allah (God) is the Creator of the wonderful accelerated expansion of universe. The</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">nature</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">of</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Dark energy (DE) and matter (DM) is enigmatic mystery of the modern astrophysics. This article is a theory establishes the nature and laws of DE and DM forces. They are among the forces controlling the universe harmony and homogeneity. The derived equations were based on the published Sayed quantum gravity force formula. The </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sayed`s Dark energy force (SDEF)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> formulas indicate that they are function in quantum gravity force (F</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">QG</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">), energy density(ρ), cosmological (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Hubble (H), and Planck (h) constants</span><strong>.</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The formulas were verified and validated. For Planck and cosmos scales, the Dark energy force, energy density, and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> were calculated and found to be 2.538x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">84</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> N, 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-26</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Kg/m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3, </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">and</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-52 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-2 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">respectively. These values are in high concordance with the declared values. The results obtained show that the DE force represents more than ¾ of the universe forces as the observations. The disputed Hubble constant was also calculated and found to be in the range; ~2.2 x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-18</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. It can also be stated and emphasized that the light speed violation (E</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">≠</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">mc</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) is a must to solve the DE nature and many other universe mysteries.</span></p> Sayed A. El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2024 Sayed A. El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 22 100 110 10.24297/jap.v22i.9605 Primordial Black Holes And How Strings Get Created Into Matter In The Early Universe https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9595 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The C-Neutralino is the major particle that drives the beginning of our universe. It decays into other particles including protons and electrons. Primordial Black Holes are also important in the development of our universe. They connect astrophysical constraints on sources of cosmic rays. Primordial Black Holes play a role in element abundance and the spectrum of the CMB. They are particle and matter creators. Primordial Black Holes can be a source of any species of particles in our space-time. In the end, they can shed new light on problems in Cosmology. Primordial Black Holes are the solution to inhomogeneous primordial structures in the early universe. C-Neutralinos are the particle that contributes to creation and also contribute to dark matter in our universe. It is the major source of dark matter in our universe. In the early universe, the cosmological principle did not exist. The inhomogeneous universe we see today evolved after about 1 billion years after the creation of our universe. </span></p> David McGraw Jr. Copyright (c) 2024 David McGraw Jr. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 22 93 99 10.24297/jap.v22i.9595 Design study of a disruptive self-powered power plant prototype https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9596 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research work discusses a preliminary disruptive prototype design of a self-powered thermal power plant doing work by strictly isothermal closed processes using forced convection heat transfer both for adding and extracting heat. It includes useful work by expansion and vacuum-based contraction due to adding heat to and extracting heat from a working fluid. A cycle analysis considering useful work due to vacuum-based contraction is the core of the problem-solving methodology. The findings will be applied to the prototyping implementation task, which includes the cascade and series of cascade coupling of several regenerative power units. The empirical results of the case studies provide the data needed to carry out a prototyping task considering the results of real cases subjected to realistic irreversibilities and heat recovery factors that make the self-feeding power plant an interesting design option. This extraordinary result confirms the technical viability of real machines that exhibit the ability to provide more energy than they use, that is, second-class perpetual motion machines</span></p> Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garcia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 22 62 92 10.24297/jap.v22i.9596 New Physics – The Negation of Einstein’s Theories of Relativity https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9594 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">From ontological considerations alone, a new revolutionary quantum dynamical-materialist dialectical (Quantum Dialectics or QD) perspective of space-time-matter-motion achieves a new quantitative mass-energy-velocity relation for any ponderable fundamental particles. This new relation, based on the quantum uncertainty principle, gives the mass m of any free fundamental particle at its origin, in terms of the inverse cube of its velocity v. This quantitative relation is different and is a negation of the one derived from mechanical-metaphysical (Classical Mechanics or CM) approach since Isaac Newton and its relativistic post-quantum formulation of Albert Einstein. This new mass-energy-velocity relation is in conformity with known knowledge and is appropriately substantiated by the recent reports that “high-energy photons of gamma radiation from a distant galaxy arrived at Earth four minutes after lower-energy photons, although they were apparently emitted at the same time”; and another saying that “the time delays of gamma-ray photons are inversely proportional to their energy”. These findings would contradict Einstein's theory of relativity, which says that all photons (particles of light) must move at the same speed c. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">QD considers matter-antimatter particle pairs in their elementary virtual forms and kinetic motion as an eternal quantum dynamical process of existence and non-existence (Being-Nothing) arising from abstract space and abstract time in a contradiction to each other. The virtual particles can transition to real particles through quantum tunnelling or when equivalent energy becomes available. Any existence in this view is a contradiction; vulnerable to change, motion, evolution, development etc. The aggregation of the elementary particles and their motions mediated by chance and necessity, give rise to the phenomenology of this infinite, eternal and ever-changing universe. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The CM approach on the contrary is based on epistemology and considers that matter (ordinary + light) and motion have an esoteric origin from the mystery of the single act of creation by God; of a finite universe in the finite past; where the premise of conservation laws and “ex nihilo nihil fit” prevail. In its relativistic version, this approach makes a fundamental difference between ponderable matter and light and in fact question the existence of particulate matter. Two axiomatic assumptions, one by Newton of one-sided universal gravitational attraction and the other by Einstein that the velocity of light c is an absolute and universal constant has brought in unphysical objects and phenomena into scientific discourse leading to century-long confusion and scholastic debates among the physicists; with no end in sight! </span></p> Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Malek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-07 2024-03-07 22 54 61 10.24297/jap.v22i.9594 Efficient disruptive power plant-based heat engines doing work by means of strictly isothermal closed processes https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9587 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research discusses a methodology to integrate strictly isothermal closed processes within thermal cycles characterized by working through contraction processes by extracting heat at free cost. An analysis of a preliminary design study of an engine and cycle doing useful work by expansion and contraction is carried out, whereby the energy balance equations are adjusted when considering contraction work as the core of the problem-solving strategy. The results of the preliminary design study will be applied to the implementation of the disruptive power unit prototype operating with real gasses as working fluids, which allows a precise and clear understanding of the issue of generating useful work through the expansion, contraction, and regeneration of heat by applying advanced heat recovery techniques to convert heat into useful work, thus achieving efficient power units that exhibit the ability to exceed 100% of added thermal energy due to the contribution of the contraction-based work performed at free cost..</span></p> Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Copyright (c) 2024 R. Ferreiro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-24 2024-02-24 22 30 53 10.24297/jap.v22i.9587 The Effect of the Earth’s Rotation and Gravity on the Speed of Light https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9573 <p>Based on the results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment [1] and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions, we can conclude that the movement of the Earth in relation to the Sun and the movement of the solar system in relation to the center of the galaxy do not affect the measurement of the speed of light in the vicinity of the Earth. But on the other hand, based on results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions we cannot know with certainty whether the Earth’s rotation around its axis affects the measurement of the speed of light in one direction. Thus, instead of the motion by which the Earth’s surface moves in relation to the Sun, we will observe the angular motion by which the Earth rotates on its axis relative to distant stars. Instead of measuring the speed of light in two directions, we will measure the speed of light in one</p> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2024 Miloš Čojanović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 22 16 29 10.24297/jap.v22i.9573 Laser heating of a finite silver sulfide slab (Ag2S). An elegant analytical solution using Laplace integral transform method. https://www.rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9561 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The problem of heating a finite silver sulfide slab with cw laser is studied using Laplace integral transform technique. For a certain laser power irradiance an expression for the temperature profile within the slab is obtained. The temperature variations with time for the front and rear surfaces are also obtained. The critical time required to initiate melting can thus be computed. Computations for an illustrative example are given. The obtained results reveal.</span></p> M.K.El Adawi S.A. Shalaby S.S. Mostafa S.A. Antar Copyright (c) 2024 M.K.El Adawi, S.A. Shalaby, S.S. Mostafa, S.A. Antar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 22 1 15 10.24297/jap.v22i.9561